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 กลุ่มอีนทรีแท้ Eagle ( Aquila )

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ตั้งหัวข้อเรื่อง: กลุ่มอีนทรีแท้ Eagle ( Aquila )   Tue Aug 10, 2010 5:45 pm

กลุ่มอีนทรีแท้ Eagle ( Aquila ) เรียกอีกอย่าว่า true eagle ลักษณะเด่น ตัวใหญ่ถึงใหญ่มากๆ หัวใหญ่ มีสันคิ้วหนา ทำให้เป้าตาลึกแลดูหน้าตาดุดัน ปากใหญ่ ปีกทั้งยาวทั้งกว้างเมื่อกางออก เห็นเป็นแฉกเป็นนิ้วๆชัดเจน หางจะสมส่วนกับลำตัว ขามีขนยาวปกคลุม ช่วงแข้งไม่ยาว กรงเล็บและ นิ้วอ้วนใหญ่ ลำตัวล่ำสันบึกบึน จนได้ฉายาว่า ทรงพลังแต่งุ่มง่าม ในไทยพบยาก ในประเทศไทย จะมี อีนทรีปีกลาย อินทรีหัวไหล่ขาว ให้เห็นทุกๆปี

อีนทรีปีกลาย Greater Spotted Eagle [Aquilaclanga]
อินทรีหัวไหล่ขาว Imperial Eagle [Aquila heliaca]
นกอินทรีทุ่งหญ้าสเต็ป
นกอินทรีจะบินอพยพหนีหนาวจากประเทศมองโกเลีย จีน และคาซัคสถาน ไปยังประเทศมาเลเซียทุกปี ในประเทศไทยที่บริเวณทุ่งนา อำเภอเขาย้อย จังหวัดเพชรบุรี เป็นถิ่นอาศัยที่สำคัญที่สุดของนกอินทรีทั้ง 3 ชนิด

ที่สามารถฝึกล่าสัตว์ใหญ่ได้ เราจะรู้จักแต่กัน อินทรีทอง Golden eagle
มีเห็นได้จากทุกสื่อที่เกี่ยวกับ Falconry.ใช่ไหมล่ะครับ มีชื่อเสียงในการล่าหมาป่า และกวางใหญ่ได้



รูปที่1 อีนทรีปีกลาย Greater Spotted Eagle [Aquilaclanga]



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ตั้งหัวข้อเรื่อง: Re: กลุ่มอีนทรีแท้ Eagle ( Aquila )   Wed Aug 25, 2010 10:39 pm

นกอินทรีทอง
ลักษณะทางกายภาพ : หญิงน้ำหนัก : 4.05-5.7 กก. ชาย : 3.5-4.4 กก.
ปีกปีกและหาง : ยาวและกว้าง หางยาวกว่าหัวและลำคอ
กางปีก : 204-220 ซม.
สี : น้ำตาลเข้มในระยะทาง มองใกล้หนึ่งเห็นว่า deckfeathers จะเข้มกว่า primaries และ tailfeathers ซึ่งระงับสดใสกับแถบเข้มที่ขอบ
พบที่ ทวีปอเมริกาเหนือ ไอบีเรียแผ่นดินใหญ่เหนือแอฟริกาตะวันออกกลาง, อิหร่าน, แมนจูเรียตะวันออกเฉียงใต้จีน อัลไตและทางทิศตะวันออก ญี่ปุ่นและเกาหลี
ใช้ในการหัดเหยี่ยว
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ตั้งหัวข้อเรื่อง: นกอินทรีทุ่งหญ้าสเตปป์   Tue Oct 19, 2010 12:48 am

ชื่อสามัญ : Steppe Eagle ชื่อท้องถิ่น : นกอินทรีทุ่งหญ้าสเตปป์, นกอินทรีสีน้ำตาลใหญ่
หล่งที่พบ : การแพร่กระจาย: ทุ่งหญ้ากึ่งทะเลทรายในรัสเซีย ตั้งแต่ทะเลดำไปจนถึงมองโกเลีย แคว้นทรานส์ไบคาเลีย และจีนด้านตะวันตกและด้านเหนือ แต่พอถึงฤดูหนาวจะบินอพยพย้ายถิ่นลงมาหากินในทวีปแอฟริกาด้านตะวันออก บางส่วนของตะวันออกกลาง ปากีสถาน อินเดียตอนเหนือ ทิเบต จีนตอนใต้ พม่า เกาะไหหลำ แคว้นตังเกี๋ย มลายู และสิงคโปร์ ในประเทศไทย เป็นนกอพยพย้ายถิ่นนอกฤดูผสมพันธุ์หรือนกอพยพผ่านที่หายาก พบได้ทางภาคกลาง ภาคตะวันตก และภาคใต้

Steppe Eagle - Aquila nipalensis

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Accipitriformes
Family: Accipitridae
Genus: Aquila
Species: Aquila nipalensis

Taxanomy & SubspeciesFormerly thought to be the same species as the Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax) with which the Steppe Eagle is closely related. Today they are definitely regarded as seperate species.
Other close relatives are the Eastern Imperial Eagle and the Spanish Imperial Eagle.

SizeIt is about 62–81 cm (24–32 in) in length and has a wingspan of 165–200 cm (65–79 in). Females, weighing 2.3-4.9 kg (5-10.8 lbs), are slightly larger than males, at 2-3.5 kg (4.4-7.7 lbs).




Habitat
As the name already says, the Steppe Eagle is a bird of open habitat like steppes, desert, semi-desert, grasslands and even agricultural areas. In the winter quarters, for example in India or Oman, also found at garbage dumps.

Distribution
In Europe only found in Russia north and north-west of the Caspian Sea. Formerly also nested in Moldova and Romania but it is long extinct in those countries. Also gone from the Ukraine since the 1980s [Mebs & Schmidt 2006]. Outside of Europe the species is found in the steppes of central Asia eastwards to Mongolia, eastern Kazakhstan, Tibet and northeastern China [GRIN 2009]. During winter in Africa and southwestern Asia.


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Migration
The Steppe Eagle is a migratory species. Most European birds and those from western Asia spend the winter in eastern and southern Africa. Some also spend the winter on the Arabian Peninsula. Birds from farther east spend the winter in India and neighbouring countries.

Breeding and Reproduction
Age of first breeding not yet known, probably around 4 years [Mebs & Schmidt 2006]. Often nests on the ground, slope of a hill and also on bushes and power poles.
1 - 4 eggs are laid. Incubation time is about 45 days [Mebs & Schmidt 2006]. The young stay in the nest for about 60 days. [Mebs & Schmidt 2006] assume that cainism (the killing of young eagles by their older siblings) does not occur with this species as often 2 or 3 young fledge.

Food and hunting
Mostly preys on small mammals but also on birds and reptiles when mammals are scarce. The most important prey species are susliks like the Little Ground Squirrel Spermophilus pygmaeus, in some places also takes Great Gerbil Rhombomys opimus [Mebs & Schmidt 2006]. In it's winter range, the species also feeds on insects like locuts and termites and also on queleas (small songbirds ) colonies [GRIN 2009]. Steppe Eagle also take carrion and will even visit landfills. Steppe Eagles mostly hunt from perches, but also from flight.

Population
The population in the European part of Russia was estimated at about 20,000 pairs at the beginning of the 1990s, but today the poplation is smaller. Excact data is not available [Mebs & Schmidt 2006]. [Birdlife International 2004] gives 5,000 - 20,000 for the year 1994.



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ตั้งหัวข้อเรื่อง: Tawny Eagle - Aquila rapax นกอินทรีสีน้ำตาล (ไม่พบในไทย)   Tue Oct 19, 2010 10:31 pm

Tawny Eagle - Aquila rapax






The Tawny Eagle, Aquila rapax, is a large bird of prey. It is about 62–72 cm in length and has a wingspan of 165–185cm. Like all eagles, it belongs to the family Accipitridae. It was once considered to be closely related to the migratory Steppe Eagle, Aquila nipalensis, and the two forms have previously been treated as conspecific. They were split based on pronounced differences in morphology and anatomy (Clark, 1992; Olson, 1994; Sangsteret al., 2002); molecular analysis indicates that these birds are not even each other's closest relatives.

Reproduction
It breeds in most of Africa both north and south of the Sahara Desert and across tropical southwestern Asia to India. It is a resident breeder which lays 1–3 eggs in a stick nest in a tree, crag or on the ground.



Habitat & Distribution
The species Aquila rapax is a well distributed bird, ranging from Rumania east through the south Russian, south Siberian and Kirghiz steppes east through Transbaikalia to Mongolia; south through Arabia, India and almost the whole of Africa.
The northern populations only are migrant.
Throughout its range it favours desert, semi-desert, steppes, open savannah, thin bushveld and cultivation steppe from sea level to 8,000 feet (2,400 m) - higher on migration.


This is a large eagle with tawny upperparts and blackish flight feathers and tail. The lower back is very pale. This species is smaller and paler than the Steppe Eagle, although it does not share that species' pale throat.



Immature birds are less contrasted than adults, but both show a range of variation in plumage colour.


Diet
The diet of the Tawny Eagle is largely carrion of all kinds, usually fresh, often the kills of other raptors; mammals up to the size of a rabbit, small to medium rodents; lizards and snakes. Locusts, grasshoppers and flying termites are taken in season, also birds up to the size of guineafowl, particularly injured individuals.
It will also pirate food from any raptor larger or smaller than itself and kills its own prey on the ground.
The call of the Tawny Eagle is a crow-like barking, but it is rather a silent bird except in display.


Tawny Eagle v Martial Eagle

KGALAGADI TRANSFRONTIER PARK (FEBRUARY 2002)

Once again, two trips were undertaken to this great area with a week's breathing space in between. The rain which had been falling in this part of the country during the previous weeks and which we hoped would bring in many of the migrants had only fallen on the Botswana side of the park. Nevertheless, the specials were there on both visits, with great views of Rednecked Falcon and Pygmy Falcon on each outing into the park. The Giant Eagle-Owls were easily found hiding away during the daylight hours in the larger trees alongside the roads, and the Whitefaced Owls were in their usual trees at Nossob and Mata Mata. The numbers of Ludwig's Bustard were exceptionally high, and one flock of twelve flying birds caused cries of glee amongst the watchers. Also unusual was the sighting of not only Temminck's and Doublebanded Coursers, but also two young Bronzewinged Coursers at the side of the road. This species is normally associated with the woodland found to the north, so these birds were at their most southerly limit. Great views were had of most of the eagles, the most common being the Blackbreasted Snake Eagle, both adult and many juveniles. A Booted Eagle soaring low overhead and illuminated from below with the sun reflecting off the Kalahari sand was spectacular and caused the group to utter comments of admiration at the spectacle.

We came across a Tawny Eagle trying to chase off a female Martial Eagle from her prey - a Kori Bustard, and we regretted not having arrived a few moments earlier to have witnessed the kill. Considering the size of the Kori, it must have been quite a tussle. A melanistic Gabar Goshawk gave us an unusually close performance as it flew repeatedly around an acacia at the side of the road, and, in this form, it must be one of the most attractive raptors to be seen anywhere. Over the two weeks we came across three harrier species, Montague's, Pallid and a young Black Harrier. The yellow form of the Crimsonbreasted Shrike, which hangs around Kwang watering hole, was very obliging and for a normally retiring species gave us close views.

The larks were well represented, with good views of Fawncoloured, Pinkbilled, Sabota, Spikheeled and Stark's being recorded over the two weeks. The total numbers of species seen were as follows. The first week's visit gave us 106 species and the second 99. Both scores being very good for the Kgalagadi. We never tire of visiting the Kgalagadi Park, it always lives up to it's reputation - great sunsets and sunrises, Lions in numbers, hunting Cheetah, Wild Cats in abundance, Cape Fox and Spotted Hyena. But instead of baboons and vervets being a nuisance, watch out for the Jackals in the camp, they love to steal the buns and biscuits from the outside tables. You don't believe me? Come along on the May and August trips and see for yourself.

http://www.reachafrica.co.za/brd/news.htm

Take note the sentence highlighted in bod did not indicate whether the tawny eagle suceeded or not in driving off the martial eagle. Nevertheless, this was impressive for the samller bird.

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ตั้งหัวข้อเรื่อง: Eastern (or Thai) Imperial Eagle - Aquila heliaca อินทรีหัวไหล่ขาว   Tue Oct 19, 2010 11:26 pm

Eastern Imperial Eagle - Aquila heliaca



Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Falconiformes (or Accipitriformes, q.v.)
Family: Accipitridae
Genus: Aquila

Size
Size Length: 92 cm (2)
Wingspan: 214 cm (2)
Weight: 3 kg

The Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) is very similar to the Golden Eagle, but a little smaller (length 80 cm, wingspan 200 cm). It is not as powerful as its relative. This eagle belongs to the bird of prey family Accipitridae.




Distribution
Imperial Eagles are distributed in South East Europe, West and Central Asia. The Spanish Imperial Eagle, found in Spain and Portugal, was formerly lumped with this species, the name Imperial Eagle being used in these circumstances; however the two are now regarded as separate species (Sangster et al., 2002) due to significant differences in morphology (Cramp & Simmons, 1980), ecology (Meyburg, 1994), and molecular characteristics (Seibold et al., 1996; Padilla et al., 1999).




Migration
In the winter this eagle migrates to Africa, India and China. In Europe, the Imperial Eagle is threatened with extinction. It has vanished from much of its former distribution area, e.g. Hungary and Austria.

Habitat
The eagle's preferred habitat is open country with small woods; unlike some other eagles, it does not live in mountains, large forests or treeless steppes.


Reproduction
Male and female imperial eagles form monogamous pairs at around four years old and then stay together for life. They build a large nest, known as an eyrie, from sticks, at the top of a tall tree, and will return to this and a couple of other nests in rotation every year, making repairs as necessary. During the spring, the female lays between two and four eggs, which are incubated for 43 days by both parents, hatching from the end of May to the middle of June. The smallest hatchling is usually pecked or starved to death by its older, stronger sibling, which claims more of the adults' attention. The surviving nestling will learn to fly at around two months, but will stay at the nest for another few weeks, being fed by the female until it can hunt.

Diet
The imperial eagle usually hunts alone, targeting small mammals (mainly ground squirrels known as susliks (Spermophilus citellus)), reptiles, birds and carrion. They have excellent eyesight for spotting prey whilst gliding, but they may also steal the catch of other birds of prey, sometimes obtaining the majority of their food this way.





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กลุ่มอีนทรีแท้ Eagle ( Aquila )
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